HUMAN RIGHTS: HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES

Anno accademico 2017/2018 - 1° anno

Prerequisiti richiesti

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A HISTORICAL APPROACH

    Conoscenze di base di storia del pensiero politico occidentale

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    The course in entirely taught in English. Hence at least a B1 knowledge of English is required.


Frequenza lezioni

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A HISTORICAL APPROACH

    Obbligatoria

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Mandatory (threshold of 75%, below which course is failed)


Contenuti del corso

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A HISTORICAL APPROACH

    Il corso prende in esame l'affermazione di dottrine politiche concernenti il diritto di natura e la legge di natura attraverso lo studio di articoli e saggi ad opera di importanti filosofi e autori di età moderna e contemporanea che al tema si sono dedicati. Lo studente sarà così in grado di meglio comprendere le origini di ciò che oggi definiamo “diritti umani” in una prospettiva che si fonda sulla tradizione di pensiero prevalentemente occidentale. Al termine del modulo, lo studente sarà in grado di mettere a fuoco quel percorso storico che ha segnato il passaggio dalla legge naturale e dal diritto naturale ai diritti umani, individuando continuità e mutamenti relativi ai dibattiti e alle rivendicazioni sui diritti succedutisi in questo arco temporale, al fine di esplorare come gli stessi si siano storicamente affermati, giustificati e difesi. Il corso mira a far acquisire agli studenti una comprensione e una prospettiva critica sulla storia delle rivendicazioni dei diritti fondamentali che hanno certamente influenzato i documenti sui diritti umani redatti in epoca successiva.

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Although discussions about international issues often make reference to the notion of Human Rights – the war in Syria and the ensuing migration of refugees are obvious examples – the philosophical foundations of these rights, their claim to cross-cultural universality, their ability to be a sort of secularized religion of mankind are controversial. This seminar aims to introduce students to the philosophical debate on these issues and to stimulate independent yet informed thinking. Besides the problem of the foundation of human rights, if there is one or if one is ever needed, the course will explore more concrete issues such as the Responsbility to protect, the Asian and Islamic challenges to Human Rights, the question whether democracy is to be considered a human right, the problem of what contraints do human rights impose on the treatment of migrants and asylum seekers.


Testi di riferimento

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A HISTORICAL APPROACH
    1. Samuel Moyn, The Last Utopia - Human Rights in History, Harward University Press, 2012 (paperback edition).
    2. Lynn Hunt, Inventing Human Rights - A History, W W Norton &Co, 2008.
    3. John Finnis, Natural Law and Natural Rights, Oxford, 2011.
    4. M. Ishay, The History of Human Rights - From Ancient Times To The Globalization Era, University of California Press, 2008.
    5. R. Tuck, Natural Rights Theories : Their Origin and Development, Cambridge University Press, 1981.
  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M., “The Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. An Overview”, in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.1-23.

    Tasioulas, John, "On the Foundations of Human Rights" in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.45-70.

    Nagel, Thomas, "Personal Rights and Public Space" Philosophy & Public Affairs, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Spring, 1995), pp. 83-107.

    Raz, Joseph, “Human Rights Without Foundations”, The Philosophy of International Law (henceforth PIL), OUP, 2010: 321-337.

    Waldron, J., "Is Dignity the Foundation of Human Rights?" in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.117-137.

    Simmons, J. "Human Rights, Natural Rights, Human Dignity" in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.138-152.

    Buchanan, Allen, “The Egalitarianism of Human Rights”, Ethics, Vol. 120, No. 4 (July 2010), pp. 679-710.

    Caranti, L., “Human Rights and Democracy” in T. Cushman (Ed.), Handbook of Human Rights, Routledge 2011, 85-99.

    Christiano, Thomas “Self-Determination and the Human Right to Democracy” in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.459-480.

    Peter, Fabienne, “A Human Rights to Democracy?”, in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.481-491.

    Jiwei Ci, “Liberty Rights and the Limits of Liberal Democracy” in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.588-607.

    Li, Xiarong “Asian Values and the Universality of Human Rights” PHR, p.397-408

    An-Nai’im, Abdullahi A., “Human Rights in the Muslim World”, PHR, p.315-334

    El Fadl, Kahled Abou, “Islam and the Challenge of Democracy” Boston Review, April/March 2003 (available on line http://www.bostonreview.net/BR28.2/abou.html)

    “The Responsibility to Protect”, available on line (http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/ICISS%20Report.pdf). In particular p. 1-55.

    Held, Virginia Care and Human Rights? in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.624-641

    Mendus, Susan Care and Human Rights. A Reply to Virginia Held, in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.642-652


Programmazione del corso

HUMAN RIGHTS: A HISTORICAL APPROACH
 ArgomentiRiferimenti testi
1History of Human Rights or Human Rights in HistoryS. Moyn/ M.Ishay 
2Natural Law and Natural RightsJ. Finnis 
3Hugo Grotius: Human Nature and the Ethics of War R. Tuck 
4Thomas Hobbes, the right to life and the Responsibility to ProtectR. Tuck 
5John Locke and the right to bear armsEssay of M. Tunick 
6Human Rights and the Enlightment:Declaring RightsM. Ishay/L. Hunt 
7The French Revolution and Human Rights L. Hunt 
8Olympe De Gouge's Declaration of the Rights of WomanL. Hunt 
9Declaring Rights in America: The U.S Bill of RightsL. Hunt 
10The world wars and the search for new solutions: the UDHRL. Hunt 
11Human Rights as the last Utopia?S. Moyn 
HUMAN RIGHTS: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH
 ArgomentiRiferimenti testi
1The philosophical foundations of human rights. The contemporary debateCruft Liao Renzo Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights  
2Pluralist FoundationsTasioulas, John, ''On the Foundations of Human Rights'' in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.45-70. 
3Political FoundationsRaz, Joseph, “Human Rights Without Foundations”, The Philosophy of International Law (henceforth PIL), OUP, 2010: 321-337 
4Human Rights and International LawBuchanan, A. "Why International Legal Human Rights? “The Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. An Overview”, in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.244-262. 
5Human Dignity and Human rightsWaldron, J., "Is Dignity the Foundation of Human Rights?"  
6Human Dignity and Human rightsSimmons, J. "Human Rights, Natural Rights, Human Dignity" 
7Democracy, Equality and Human RightsBuchanan, Allen, “The Egalitarianism of Human Rights”, Ethics, Vol. 120, No. 4 (July 2010), pp. 679-710. 
8Democracy, Equality and Human RightsCristiano, Thomas “Self-Determination and the Human Right to Democracy” in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.459-480. 
9Democracy, Equality and Human RightsPeter, Fabienne, “A Human Rights to Democracy?”, in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.481-491. 
10Universalism and Pluralism: the Asian and the Islamic ChallengesLi, Xiarong “Asian Values and the Universality of Human Rights” PHR, p.397-408 
11Universalism and Pluralism: the Asian and the Islamic ChallengesAn-Nai’im, Abdullahi A., “Human Rights in the Muslim World”, PHR, p.315-334 
12Right to Intervention and Responsibility to Protect“The Responsibility to Protect”, available on line (http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/ICISS%20Report.pdf). In particular p. 1-55. 
13The Feminist Critique: Are Human Rights Patriarchal? Held, Virginia Care and Human Rights? in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.624-641 
14The Feminist Critique: Are Human Rights Patriarchal? Mendus, Susan Care and Human Rights. A Reply to Virginia Held, in Cruft R., Liao S. M., and Renzo M. (eds.) Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: 2015, p.642-652 

VERIFICA DELL'APPRENDIMENTO

Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A HISTORICAL APPROACH

    L'esame è articolato in due momenti: una prova in itinere effettuata a metà del corso e una prova finale fissata nelle date ufficiali indicate nel calendario. La media dei voti riportati dallo studente nelle due prove costituirà il voto finale conseguito per il presente modulo.

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Assessment will take place by looking at four aspects of students’ performance: 1) Participation in class, 2) Presentation, 3) Final paper, 4) Final oral exam

    Grade Weights:

    Participation in class: 25%

    Presentation in class: 25%

    Final paper: 25%

    Final oral exam : 25%


Prove in itinere

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A HISTORICAL APPROACH
    • E' prevista una prova intermedia a metà corso in cui si richiede allo studente la preparazione di un mid-term paper (4000 parole) su un argomento a scelta tra quelli proposti dal docente. Il paper, redatto in forma cartacea, sarà anche presentato in power point dall'autore per stimolare il dibattito in classe, quindi sarà consegnato o trasmesso via mail al docente ai fini della valutazione . Gli studenti che avranno selezionato lo stesso autore o lo stesso argomento si alterneranno nel ruolo di speaker e discussant simulando i lavori convegnistici internazionali..

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Students are supposed to participate actively during classes. Moreover, each student will have to make a presentation in PP of a part of the material to be agreed with the instructor.


Prove di fine corso

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A HISTORICAL APPROACH

    L'esame conclusivo di fine corso consiste in una discussione della durata di circa 30 minuti sul paper finale (8000 parole) presentato dallo studente e fatto pervenire al docente via mail almeno 4 giorni prima della data ufficiale dell'appello.Nel caso in cui lo studente non avesse sostenuto o superato la prova in itinere, lo stesso dovrà inviare al docente il mid-term paper, unitamente al final paper, e discutere entrambi in sede d'esame.

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    no


Esempi di domande e/o esercizi frequenti

  • HUMAN RIGHTS: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Examples of topics for final papers:

    Human rights and the Islamic Perspective. Women and non-Muslims

    A MATTER OF ECONOMY OR A SYSTEM OF VALUES? THE CHOICE OF THE AMERICAN TARGET AND DETERMINANTS OF TERRORISM SUPPORT

    A new approach to Human Rights: Ethics of care. A deep analysis of the approach and a comparison with some other theories

    Human Rights: Between universality and cultural relativism?

     

    Examples of question for final oral exams:

    Can you describe the three main orientation in the contemporary philosophy of human rights?

    Can you summarize the main points of Chirstiano's paper on human rights and democracy?

    Can you summarize the main points of Kok Chor Tan's paper?

    Can you summarize the main points of R2P?